In the past, companies engaged with their customers by meeting with them face-to-face, speaking with them on the telephone or mailing written documents. Engagement was largely reactive, with the marketing department primarily providing most of the outreach. Today both consumer expectations and communication channels have changed and companies can no longer rely on these traditional forms of engagement. Our research shows that customer service is now an enterprise-wide activity and that customers engage with companies through a variety of communication channels that include email, corporate websites, text messaging, instant messaging, social media, smartphone applications and video.

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